In January 2021 the manuscript for my small book, Concealed Carry Revolution: Liberalizing the Right to Bear Arms in America, was at the publisher and when it was released several months later, it was already out of date. In the first months of 2021, five states passed permitless carry laws: Iowa, Tennessee, Utah, Montana, and Texas. I brought out an updated version of the book later that year. Alas, it appears that events in 2022 may necessitate a second update. Ohio, Alabama, and Indiana have recently passed permitless carry laws, and Georgia seems likely to join them soon.
These developments provide a good occasion to review concealed weapon carry permit laws in the US.
There are four basic regulatory regimes governing the carrying of concealed weapons in public. From least to most restrictive, they are:
- Permitless Carry (without the option to get a concealed carry permit)
- Permitless Carry (with the option to get a concealed carry permit)
- Shall Issue
- May Issue
The image below briefly describes these regimes and highlights certain caveats.
Distribution of States by Regulatory Regime
Before Governor Bob Graham signed Florida’s landmark shall issue legislation in 1987, only 5 states had such laws (Washington State, Indiana, Maine, North Dakota, South Dakota). Vermont was and has always been a permitless carry state.
Three decades later, a majority of states (N=41) plus the District of Columbia adhere to the more liberal concealed carry permitting regimes, either shall issue (N=17 + DC) or permitless (N=24, including Vermont), making concealed carry the greatest liberalization of gun laws in US history.
(Note: Following a 2017 D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals decision in Wrenn v. District of Columbia and Grace v. District of Columbia, the D.C. Metropolitan Police Department no longer requires applicants for concealed carry permits to provide a “good reason.” Although not a state, it is a shall issue jurisdiction.)
Today, every state must have legal provisions for allowing people to carry concealed weapons in public (may, shall, or permitless), even if in may issue states or jurisdictions those provisions can be so strict as to be effectively “no issue.” For example, Hawaii is a may issue state but no private citizen has a concealed carry permit there. The same is true in San Francisco.
The county-level perspective in this graphic highlights some of the county-level variations within may issue states – red is de facto no issue, yellow is may issue, and light blue is de facto shall issue.
Historical Development of Concealed Weapon Carry Laws
The history of concealed weapon carry laws in the United States can be broken down into 4 eras.
Prior to 1813, there were no statewide bans on carrying concealed weapons in public. Open carry was also widely accepted as openly carrying a weapon was seen as a more honorable practice undertaken by upstanding citizens than carrying concealed weapons.
(1) 1813-1839: “Restricted Era” begins as first states ban concealed carry
Kentucky passed the first law restricting the carrying of concealed weapons in public in 1813. Over the next quarter-century, 7 other Southern states followed suit: Louisiana (1813), Indiana (1820), Georgia (1837), Arkansas (1837-38), Tennessee (1838), Virginia (1838), and Alabama (1839). This launched the “Restricted Era” of American history.
(2) 1850s-1980s: Spread and consolidation of “Restricted Era”
Laws banning concealed carry spread from the Southern states throughout the country. A highly influential model for the restriction of concealed carry in the Northern states in the early 20th century was New York’s 1911 Sullivan Act, which required a license to possess and carry a pistol. In effect, where concealed weapon carry was allowed at all, it was typically permitted under a discretionary system based on subjective criteria like the “good moral character” or “good cause” of the applicant. The “Restricted Era” was consolidated and lasted until the 1980s.
(3) 1980s-2010s: Gun law liberalization – Rise of “Shall Issue Era”
Florida didn’t create shall-issue concealed carry in 1987, but it did open the floodgates for a massive expansion in the number of states with liberalized concealed carry laws. Prior to Florida, in only a few states was it relatively easy for an ordinary citizen to carry a concealed weapon legally. This included Vermont which has never regulated concealed carry of firearms, as well as Washington State, which became one of the first states to liberalize in 1961.
From 1988 to 2013, 33 states passed laws that require state or local authorities to issue a permit to any applicant that meets the objective statutory criteria if no statutory reasons for denial exist.
(4) 2010s Onward: The Era of Permitless Carry
Permitless carry represents the next phase of this liberalization of gun laws in the US. Including Vermont, 24 states now allow individuals to carry a concealed weapon in public without a permit, with certain restrictions and exceptions. 20 of these 24 have instituted these laws since 2015.
What the Future Holds
At this point, the number of additional (red) states that could go from shall issue to permitless concealed carry regimes seems small, perhaps Georgia and South Carolina. Whether permitless carry can move into purple-ish states like Louisiana, Virginia, or North Carolina remains to be seen.
The blue may issue states seem unlikely to become permitless carry battlegrounds, though they may become shall issue states involuntarily. The Supreme Court of the United States will have something to say about this in the case of New York State Rifle and Pistol Association v. Bruen. The case concerns the constitutionality of New York’s may issue Sullivan Law requiring a person to show “proper cause” to obtain a concealed carry permit. The decision could force all blue may issue states to become shall issue.
Last, since the rise of the shall issue era, no state has gone from a liberalized carry regime to a more restrictive one. That is, no permitless carry state has gone back to shall issue, and no shall issue state has gone back to may issue. It seems unlikely that pattern will change in the future.